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歷史課綱應還原開羅宣言的意義

國民黨最近發表的總統競選政見包括透過中學課綱調整凝聚國人國家認同。我國高中歷史教科書由一九五七到二○○六年的五十年間是以開羅宣言確立台灣主權歸屬中華民國,二○○六至二○一一年及二○一九年至今的十年間主要改用台灣地位未定論及人民自決論。二○一二至二○一八年的六年間課綱寫出「台灣國際地位確立的過程」,希望教科書寫出中華民國與日本國間和平條約(簡稱中日和約或台北和約)的重要性,但成效不大。多加說明開羅宣言與當前台灣的關係及其對維護台海安全的意義,於國家對內對外或有裨益。

開羅會議於八十年前的一九四三年十一月廿二至廿六日召開。召開前美、英領導的同盟國在歐洲戰場與太平洋戰場取得重要勝利,義大利已經投降,德國在蘇聯及非洲戰場落敗,美國在中途島及所羅門群島等諸多戰役取勝,剩下西太平洋有待對日反攻。此時中華民國外交部長宋子文及蔣夫人赴美多方爭取,並於之後以電報多次聯繫,希望中華民國單獨對日作戰轉為與盟國結合對日作戰。

為取得世界大戰勝利,並準備戰後安排,美英兩強接受召開此二戰期間唯一以亞洲戰場為對象的高峰會議,美國更為積極。會議所擬的新聞公報美英還經蘇聯首肯後於同年十二月一日公布,為我國慣稱的開羅宣言。

開羅宣言中「我三大盟國此次進行戰爭之目的,在於制止及懲罰日本之侵略…」、「三國之宗旨,在剝奪日本…在使…台灣、澎湖群島等,歸還中華民國」、「與其他對日作戰之盟國目標相一致,我三大盟國將堅忍進行其重大而長期之戰爭,以獲得日本之無條件投降」,句句表達的都是「意向」。有關台澎轉移中華民國是日本投降後將進行之事。

日本戰敗後,所有投降文件都說遵守波茨坦公告,其第八條指出「開羅宣言之條件必將實施」。美國杜魯門總統依此批准的盟總第一號命令要蔣委員長接收台灣。盟國與日本結束戰爭,舊金山和約第四條日本接受此一安排。其第廿六條準備中華民國與日本另簽法律效力與舊金山和約相同的台北和約。盟國促成此約包含以中華民國有效統治範圍為條約實施範圍的換文第一號。聯合國也使台北和約登記為聯合國條約系列一八五八號。

中華人民共和國與日本簽訂的中日和平友好條約前言提到,一九七二年兩國政府聯合聲明所表明的各項原則應予嚴格遵守。該聲明中日本堅持遵循波茨坦公告。

開羅宣言也使中華民國政府在之後約一年九個月期間,盡力在中國拖住日本五分之二兵力,而使美國在太平洋戰爭得以全力應付日本,美國的勝利也使中國喪失的精華半壁江山得以收復。

開羅宣言使中華民國躍居世界四強之一,並為之後參與創立聯合國及取得安理會地位奠基。對日抗戰期間政府軍死亡人數約為共軍七倍。政府軍主要針對日本在城市的反攻,是共軍之後以鄉村包圍城市的背景。

一九七一年中華民國十月廿五日退聯前夕的五月美國尼克森總統派墨斐特使來台,蔣總統對聯合國雙重代表權提案已經點頭,但對安理會的位置態度有所保留,由以上說明,可以瞭解他的心境。

聯合國憲章第一章第一條規定:「以和平方法且依正義及國際法之原則,調整或解決足以破壞和平之國際爭端或情勢。」以上說明希望有助於中華人民共和國在聯合國安理會的位置上對台海安全提出最合情合理的對策。

The Significance of the Cairo Declaration Should Be Restored in the History Curriculum

Author: Lin Man-houng, Adjunct Research Fellow at the Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica

Translator: Tyler Bennett

The Kuomintang’s recently announced presidential campaign policies include the consolidation of national identity through adjustments to middle school curriculum. In the fifty years from 1957 to 2006, Taiwan's high school history textbooks stated that the Cairo Declaration confirmed that Taiwan's sovereignty lies with the Republic of China. In the ten years across 2006 to 2011 and 2019 to the present, the theory that Taiwan's status is undetermined and the theory of people's self-determination gained primacy. In the six years between 2012 and 2018, history textbooks described “the process of the confirmation of Taiwan's international status,” which aimed to depict the importance of the Treaty of Peace between the Republic of China and Japan (simplified as the Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty or the Treaty of Taipei), but it had little apparent effect. Further explanation regarding the relationship between the Cairo Declaration and the present Taiwan and the significance of this declaration to safeguarding security across the Taiwan Strait might help Taiwan both internally and externally.

The Cairo Conference was held eighty years ago between November 22 and November 26, 1943. Before the meeting, the Allied powers led by the United States and Britain achieved important victories in Europe and the Pacific. Italy surrendered, Germany lost against the Soviet Union and was defeated across Africa. The United States had won many battles including the Battle of Midway and the Solomon Island campaigns. Only the counterattacks against Japan in the Western Pacific remained to be handled. At this time, T.V. Soong, the Foreign Minister of the Republic of China, and Mei-ling Soong, wife of Chiang Kai-shek, traveled to the United States to seek support. After their return, they sent many telegrams expressing hope that the Republic of China’s independent war against Japan could become a joint war fought together with the Allied powers.

In order to achieve victory and prepare for the post-war world, the United States and Britain convened what was to be the sole summit of World War II focused on the Asian theater, and the United States was the more eager of the two. The communiqué drafted for the meeting was published by the United States and Britain on December 1 of the same year with the approval of the Soviet Union. This communiqué is commonly known as the Cairo Declaration in Taiwan.

According to the Cairo Declaration, “The three great Allies are fighting this war to restrain and punish the aggression of Japan.” It continues, “It is their purpose that Japan shall be stripped of all islands in the Pacific which she has seized or occupied [...], and that the territories Japan has stolen from the Chinese, such as [...] Formosa and the Pescadores, shall be restored to the Republic of China.” Lastly, the communiqué states, “With these objects in view the three Allies, in harmony with those of the allies at war with Japan, will continue to persevere in the serious and prolonged operations necessary to procure the unconditional surrender of Japan.” The transfer of Taiwan and Penghu to the Republic of China was to be carried out after the surrender of Japan.

After Japan's defeat, all documents of surrender mandated observation of the Potsdam Declaration. Article 8 of this declaration states, “The terms of the Cairo Declaration shall be carried out...” President Truman of the United States approved General Order No. 1 of the Supreme Command for the Allied Powers, which required that Chiang Kai-shek take command of Taiwan. The Allies ended war with Japan, and Japan accepted Article 4 of the San Francisco Peace Treaty. Article 26 of this treaty set the Republic of China and Japan to sign the separate Taipei Peace Treaty and gave it the same legal effect as the San Francisco Peace Treaty. The Allies expedited the completion of the Taipei Peace Treaty, and one result of this was Diplomatic Note No. 1, which established the area under effective rule of the Republic of China as the scope of implementation. The United Nations also registered the Taipei Peace Treaty as No. 1858 in the United Nations Treaty Series.

The preface to the Treaty of Peace and Friendship between Japan and China signed between the People’s Republic of China and Japan mentions that the principles expressed in the 1972 joint statement between the two governments should be strictly observed. In this statement, Japan insisted on following the Potsdam Declaration.

The Cairo Declaration also brought the government of the Republic of China to try its best to hold out against the two-fifths of Japan’s military that was stationed in China for one year and nine months, allowing the United States to devote itself entirely to dealing with Japan in the Pacific War. US victory in this war conversely allowed China to retrieve the massive territories it had lost.

The Cairo Declaration enabled the Republic of China to become one of the world's top four powers and laid the stage for its subsequent participation in the founding of the United Nations as well as its Security Council membership. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the death toll of government troops was approximately seven times that of the Communist troops. The government army mainly staged counterattacks targeting the Japanese in urban areas, which set the stage for the Communist army to encircle the cities from the countryside.

In May 1971, before the Republic of China withdrew from the United Nations on October 25 of that year, US President Nixon sent Robert Murphy as a special envoy to Taiwan. President Chiang Kai-shek had already nodded in agreement to the dual representation proposal in the United Nations but had reservations about the Security Council position. From the preceding description, we can come to an understanding of his state of mind at the time.

Chapter 1, Article 1 of the United Nations Charter states that its purpose is "to bring about by peaceful means, in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace..." In line with this purpose, this editorial is aimed to assist the People's Republic of China propose the most realistic and reasonable countermeasures to Taiwan Strait security from its position on the United Nations Security Council.

"The Significance of the Cairo Declaration Should Be Restored in the History Curriculum," United News Network, https://udn.com/news/story/7339/7607951, reviewed on November 30, 2023.

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