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讀王毅在聯合國有關台灣的發言…遵國際法 應正視中華民國

大陸外長王毅當地時間24日在紐約聯合國總部,出席第77屆聯合國大會一般性辯論並演講。中新社
大陸外長王毅當地時間24日在紐約聯合國總部,出席第77屆聯合國大會一般性辯論並演講。中新社

王毅九月廿四日出席第七十七屆聯合國大會一般性辯論,其當時或前夕有關台灣之發言,有以下幾點值得討論與期許:

一、「台灣自古屬於中國」:王毅在大會演講做這樣的陳述。但清朝的雍正皇帝清楚指出,在康熙平台之前,「台灣自古未屬中國」(《大清世宗憲皇帝實錄》)。

二、「中國歷來主張,應該帶頭遵守國際法」:這是王毅在大會演講之前說的。清朝統治台灣後,台灣的主權有兩次轉移。第一次是一八九五年清政府以馬關條約將台澎完全主權永久割讓給日本;第二次為日本於一九五二年的中華民國與日本國間和平條約(台北和約)中將此主權轉移給已經遷台的中華民國政府。香港的一九九七回歸,也是在中華人民共和國承認一八九八年的中英展拓香港界址專條下進行。中華人民共和國如何對待中華民國,是其是否帶頭遵守國際法的試金石。

三、「中國的國家主權和領土完整從未分割」:王毅在聯大做此強調。清光緒廿一年二月初六日美使田貝送電,日方定在馬關會議,初七日軍機大臣慶親王奕劻等公奏慈禧太后:「以今日情勢而論,宗社為重,邊徼為輕,利害相懸,無煩數計。」一九四九年初中共占領區流通印有中華民國三十八年及毛澤東頭像的紙幣,會有「兩個中國」或「一中一台」,中國當然是重要因素。

四、「二七五八號決議將台灣當局代表從其『非法佔據』的席位上驅逐出去」:王毅這樣說。二七五八號處理的是已經遷台的中華民國能否繼續代表中國大陸的問題,而非「台灣當局代表」的處理問題。

已經遷台的中華民國之所以在二七五八號之前仍代表中國大陸,是因為中華人民共和國非法在先。中華民國政府雖於一九四九年遷台,但是這個政府一九四二年參與對軸心國宣戰的聯合國家宣言,才有中國分享盟國的二戰勝利及參與創立聯合國,這是聯合國這項安排的基礎。

五、二七五八號徹底解決了台灣的代表權問題:王毅這麼認為。在二七五八號通過的一九七一年台灣與中國大陸早已分治。中華民國政府透過登記為聯合國條約系列一八五八號的台北和約取得台澎金馬及附屬島嶼主權。此條約根據舊金山和約第二、四、廿六條簽訂。根據維也納條約法公約,台北和約所確立的主權不因斷交、退聯而改變。

聯合國憲章未包含授權會員國以單方行為退出聯合國組織的規定。在聯合國大會重新檢討一九七一年只解決中國大陸在聯合國應由哪個政府代表,而未討論台灣在聯合國應由哪個政府代表的二七五八號決議文,恢復一九七一年以來在台澎金馬的中華民國原應享有的聯合國會員權益及應盡義務,有其時代意義。

六、「中國願繼續以最大誠意、盡最大努力實現兩岸和平統一」:這是王毅的呼籲。東西德在統一之前都曾分別在聯合國。大韓民國及朝鮮人民共和國目前也都是聯合國會員國。大韓民國憲法第三條韓文中譯為:「大韓民國的領土為韓半島」,韓文中譯的「為」字在英文譯為shall consist,係表達一種意向。兩個韓國統一的意向與其個別具體範圍的領土並不衝突。中華人民共和國憲法:「台灣是中華人民共和國的神聖領土的一部分。完成統一祖國的大業是包括台灣同胞在內的全中國人民的神聖職責」,表達的也是一種意向。兩岸相互尊重其各自領土,是和平統一的重要基礎。

Reading Wang Yi's UN Address on Taiwan

2022-09-27 04:20 United Daily News

Author: Lin Man-houng, Adjunct Research Fellow, Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica

On September 24, Wang Yi participated in the general debate of the 77th Session of the UN General Assembly. His following comments on Taiwan from the debate and the day prior should be discussed and anticipated:

1. "Since ancient time, Taiwan has been an inseperable part of Chinese territory." Wang Yi made this statement in his comments at the General Assembly. However, Emperor Yongzheng of the Qing dynasty clearly stated that before Emperor Kangxi conquered Taiwan, "Taiwan had never belonged to China since antiquity" (Veritable Records of Qing Emperor Shizong).

2. "China has always advocated that it should take the lead in abiding by international law." Wang Yi made this statement prior to addressing the General Assembly. Sovereignty over Taiwan has been transferred twice since Qing rule. The first time was the Qing government’s cession of full sovereignty over Taiwan and Penghu to Japan in 1895 through the Treaty of Shimonoseki. The second was the Taipei Peace Treaty, signed between the Republic of China and Japan in 1952. This treaty transferred sovereignty over Taiwan and Penghu to the Republic of China, which had already relocated to Taiwan. The return of Hong Kong in 1997 was carried out under the 1898 Convention between the United Kingdom and China, Respecting an Extension of Hong Kong Territory. How the People's Republic of China treats the Republic of China is a litmus test for whether it will lead in abiding by international law.

3. "China’s sovereignty and territorial integrity have never been severed." Wang Yi stressed this during the UN General Assembly. On March 2, 1895, the American diplomat Charles Denby Jr. issued a telegram, forwarding the message that the Japanese decided to hold negotiations in Shimonoseki. On March 3, Prince Qing sent a memorial to Empress Dowager Cixi, which reads, "Considering the present situation, maintenance of the imperial state should be prioritized against holding the borderlands. The benefit of the former greatly outweighs the harm of the latter. There's no need for further accounting." In early 1949, banknotes bearing “38th Year of the Republic of China” with Mao Zedong's visage were circulated in CCP-occupied areas. So China is of course an important factor in deciding whether there are "two Chinas" or "one China and one Taiwan."

4. "Resolution 2758 expelled representatives of the Taiwanese authorities from UN seats they 'illegally occupied.'" Resolution 2758 deals with the issue of whether the Republic of China on Taiwan could continue to represent mainland China, not how to handle Taiwanese authorities. The reason that the Republic of China on Taiwan still represented mainland China before Resolution 2758 was earlier illegal acts by the People's Republic of China. The government of the Republic of China moved to Taiwan in 1949, but it was because this government partook in the Declaration by United Nations proclaiming war on the Axis powers in 1942 that China could share in the Allied victory of World War II and participate in the creation of the United Nations. This was the basis of the UN arrangements.

5. "Resolution 2758 completely resolved the issue of Taiwan's representation." So Wang Yi believes. In 1971, when Resolution 2758 was passed, Taiwan and mainland China were already separately governed for 22 years. The government of the Republic of China obtained sovereignty over Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and their appertaining islands through the Taipei Peace Treaty, registered as No. 1858 of the United Nations Treaty Series. This treaty was signed according to Articles II, IV, and XXVI of the San Francisco Peace Treaty. According to the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, the sovereignty established by the Taipei Peace Treaty does not change due to severance of diplomatic ties or withdrawal from the UN. The UN Charter does not contain provisions authorizing member states to withdraw from the UN unilaterally. Re-examination in the UN General Assembly of the 1971 Resolution 2758, which resolved only what government should represent the Chinese mainland not Taiwan in the UN, and the return of the rights and obligations of UN membership that the Republic of China on Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu should possess would be of epochal significance.

6. "China will continue to work for peaceful reunification with the greatest sincerity and efforts." This is Wang Yi's appeal. East and West Germany were both in the United Nations before their unification. The Republic of Korea and the People's Republic of Korea are both currently members of the United Nations. Article III in the English version of the Constitution of the Republic of Korea is "The territory of the Republic of Korea shall consist of the Korean peninsula and its adjacent islands." "Shall consist of" in the English version expresses a kind of intentionality. The intention to unify the two Koreas is not in conflict with their respective and specifically bound territories. The Constitution of the People's Republic of China states, “Taiwan is part of the sacred territory of the People’s Republic of China. It is the inviolable duty of all Chinese people, including our compatriots in Taiwan, to accomplish the great task of reunifying the motherland.” This also expresses a kind of intentionality. Mutual respect between each side of the Strait for their respective territories is an important foundation for peaceful unification.

Published in United Daily on 20220_9_27 (Public Opinion Forum) (A13)

聯合國 王毅

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