台北和約 立法院立的法

根據媒體播出,五月十二日立法院長接受媒體專訪時指出:「國家主權領土要轉移,要參照國際條約」;「舊金山和約才是終戰條約,日本放棄在台權益後,主權屬於台灣人民」;「台灣在一九九二年起國會全面改選,到三度政黨輪替,『台灣現在就是一個主權獨立的國家』」;「現在也不需要再強調台灣地位未定論」。以上整個陳述絲毫未提台北和約(簡稱「北約」)—中華民國與日本國間和平條約。但「北約」是立法院立的法,本文將陳述立法院一九五二年七月卅一日通過「北約」的相關法律依據與法律效力。

奧本海及勞特派特所著《國際法》指出:「透過國際戰爭造成的領土移轉,須經過領土授受國家和平條約簽訂,勝利者才能取得合法有效統治。」開羅宣言及以之為根據的波茨坦宣言第八條指出,日本戰敗,要歸還台灣、澎湖給中華民國。一九四五年九月二日盟國統帥總司令部指令第一號規定「台灣之前之日本國指揮官,以及該地駐屯之所有陸、海、空和後備部隊,向蔣中正委員長投降。」受降儀式於一九四五年十月廿五日在今台北中山堂前舉行,但台灣主權移轉仍有待和平條約確立。

在「北約」簽約前,美國國務院致藍欽公使電文指出:依照多邊和約第四條,日本政府應與國民政府以後者為台灣及澎湖列島之「現在行政當局」地位商討辦法。日本外務省次官石原幹次郎於一九五二年二月六日在日本眾議院外交委員會中也提及:「進行中的雙邊和約是根據舊金山和約第廿六條之原則而簽訂。」

中華民國憲法第六十三條規定,立法院有議決條約案之權,所以如國際協定用條約、公約或專約的名稱,必須送立法院審議通過後,才能由行政院咨請總統批准。行政院長陳誠主持的行政院會於一九五二年四月卅日通過「北約」五項文件,並議定依照憲法第六十三條規定,送請立法院審議。張道藩立法院長主持的立法院兩次臨時會議由七月十九日至七月卅一日經過多次討論,而於七月卅一日由全體委員無異議通過「北約」。蔣中正總統於八月二日批准,八月五日由中華民國外交部長葉公超與日本駐台灣海外事務所長木村四郎七換文生效。八月九日由蔣中正總統公布,八月十二日刊登《總統府公報》。

依大法官解釋第三二九號引用憲法第一四一條「尊重條約」之規定,條約之效力應優於內國一般法律而居於特別規定之地位。依聯合國憲章第一○二條規定,條約換文生效後,須到聯合國登記,聯合國才會承認。「北約」於一九五二年九月廿五日登記為該年聯合國條約系列的一八五八號。「金約」第十一條規定:「除本約及其附件另有規定外,凡在中華民國與日本國間因戰爭狀態存在之結果而引起之任何問題,均應依照金山和約之有關規定予以解決。」「金約」第廿六條指出:「若日本與任一國家簽訂和平協議或戰爭請求協議,並賦予該國優於本條約所定之條款,此優惠待遇應自動擴及本條約所有簽署國。」因此,「北約」還不只是中華民國與日本兩國間的條約,還是聯合國會員國或是「金約」簽署國都應承認的國際條約。

The Taipei Peace Treaty: Law Established by the Legislative Yuan

2022-05-19 04:59 United Daily News

Author: Lin Man-houng, Adjunct Research Fellow at the Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica

Translator: Tyler Bennett

According to media reports, in an exclusive interview on May 12, the President of the Legislative Yuan made the following statements: "International treaties must be respected when national sovereignty and territory are transferred." "The war didn't end until the San Francisco Peace Treaty. After Japan renounced its rights and claims to Taiwan, sovereignty resided in the Taiwanese people." "Taiwan's parliament has been completely reelected since 1992 and there have been three transitions of power, so 'Taiwan is now a sovereign and independent country.'" "There is now no need to focus on the theory that Taiwan's status has yet to be determined." The above statements make no mention of the Taipei Peace Treaty (TPT), the peace treaty between the Republic of China and Japan, though the TPT is law enacted by the Legislative Yuan passed on July 31, 1952. This article will state the legal basis and effects of the TPT.

International Law by Oppenheim and Lauterpacht states, "If a cession of territory is the outcome of war, it is the treaty of peace which stipulates the cession among its other provisions." The Cairo Declaration and Article 8 of the Potsdam Declaration on which it was based state that upon Japan’s defeat, Taiwan and Penghu would be restored to the Republic of China. On September 2, 1945, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers issued an order proclaiming, "The senior Japanese commanders and all ground, sea, air and auxiliary forces within […] Formosa […] shall surrender to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek." The surrender ceremony was held on October 25, 1945, in front of today's Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall in Taipei, but the transfer of sovereignty over Taiwan had yet to be established through a peace treaty.

Before the TPT was signed, the US State Department sent a message to Karl Rankin, U.S. Chargé d'Affaires to the Republic of China, stating that in accordance with Article 4 of the San Francesco Peace Treaty, the Japanese government should discuss with the Nationalist Government the latter's status as the current “administering authority" of Taiwan and the Penghu Islands. On February 6, 1952, in a meeting of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Japanese House of Representatives, Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs Ishihara Kanichiro also stated, "The bilateral peace treaty currently under deliberation will be concluded in accordance with the principles of Article 26 of the San Francisco Peace Treaty."

Article 63 of the Constitution of the Republic of China stipulates that the Legislative Yuan has the power to enact treaties. Therefore, if an international agreement uses the name "treaty," "convention" or "specific treaty," it must be submitted to the Legislative Yuan to be deliberated and passed before the Executive Yuan can give it to the President for approval. On April 30, 1952, the Executive Yuan with Chen Cheng as Premier passed five documents related to the TPT and agreed to submit them to the Legislative Yuan for deliberation in accordance with Article 63 of the Constitution. The treaty was discussed in two extraordinary sessions of the Legislative Yuan chaired by President of the Legislative Yuan Chang Tao-fan between July 19 and July 31, and all members approved the TPT on July 31 without objection. President Chiang Kai-shek approved the treaty on August 2, and on August 5, when notes were exchanged between George Kung-chao Yeh, Foreign Minister of the Republic of China, and Kimura Shiroshichi, Head of Japan's Overseas Affairs Office in Taiwan, the treaty took effect. On August 9, President Chiang Kai-shek ordered the Executive Yuan to announce the treaty and it was published in the Presidential Office Gazette on August 12.

According to Supreme Court Interpretation No. 329, which cites the provision to "respect treaties" of Article 141 of the Constitution, the effect of treaties should be superior to general domestic laws and take the status of special provisions. According to Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations, after notes are exchanged and a treaty takes effect, it must be registered with the United Nations for it to be recognized by the United Nations. The TPT was registered on September 25, 1952 as no. 1858 of the United Nations Treaty Series of that year. Article 11 of the Taipei Peace Treaty stipulates, "Unless otherwise provided for in the present Treaty and the documents supplementary thereto, any problem arising between the Republic of China and Japan as a result of the existence of a state of war shall be settled in accordance with the relevant provisions of the San Francisco Treaty." Article 26 of the San Francisco Peace Treaty states, "Should Japan make a peace settlement or war claims settlement with any State granting that State greater advantages than those provided by the present Treaty, those same advantages shall be extended to the parties to the present Treaty." Because of these provisions, the TPT is not only a treaty between the Republic of China and Japan, but also an international treaty that should be recognized by members of the United Nations and signatories of the San Francisco Peace Treaty.

Newspaper cutting: Published in United Daily News (Public Opinion Forum) (A13) on 2022/05/19.

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