（107 學年度篇章結構第 31-35 題/節錄第 31-32 題）
The causes of the French Revolution are complex and still widely debated among historians. However, many scholars agree that food played an important role in the socio-political upheaval. 31 A main component in the French daily meal, bread was often tied up with the national identity. Studies show that the average 18th -century French worker spent half his daily wage on bread. In 1788 and 1789, however, when the grain crops failed two years in a row, the price of bread shot up to 88 percent of his earnings. 32 The great majority of the French population was starving. Some even resorted to theft or prostitution to stay alive.
(A) External threats closely shaped the course of the Revolution.
(B) With the collapse of the royal family, calm was restored gradually.
(C) Meanwhile, peasants’ resentment against the gabelle was spreading.
(D) The common household could not afford to buy enough food to meet their basic needs.
(E) The anger quickly built up, culminating in the massive riots of the French Revolution in 1789.
(F) Specifically, bread and salt, two most essential elements in the French cuisine, were at the heart of the conflict.
31. 空格前一句提到 upheaval（動亂），後一句提到 daily meal（每日餐食）跟 bread（麵包）。選項 (F) Specifically, bread and salt, two most essential elements in the French cuisine, were at the heart of the conflict. 提到 bread and salt（麵包跟鹽巴）及 conflict（衝突）正好能串起前後兩句。
32. 空格前一句提到 the price of bread shot up（麵包價格暴漲），後一句提到 starving（挨餓）。選項 (D) The common household could not afford to buy enough food to meet their basic needs. 提到 could not afford to buy enough food（買不起足夠食物）正好能串起前後兩句。
● 善用略讀（skimming）技巧：快速掃過文章的關鍵詞、主題句，先對文章大致內容及架構有初步理解。這麼做不只能協助判斷文章主旨（main idea）及段落大意，也能推測某些題目的答案線索可能落在哪個區間。
（104 學年度閱讀測驗第 44-47 題）
Imagine two bottlenose dolphins swimming in the Gulf of Mexico. You hear a series of clicks, whistles, and whines coming from each, much like a conversation. We can’t be sure what they are discussing, but scientists do believe dolphins call each other by “name.”
A recent study suggests the marine mammals not only produce their own unique “signature whistles,” but they also recognize and mimic whistles of other dolphins they are close to and want to see again. It seems that dolphins can call those they know by mimicking their distinct whistles. “They’re abstract names,” said Randall Wells, one of the authors of the study.
To conduct the study, the researchers listened to recordings of about 250 wild bottlenose dolphins made around Florida’s Sarasota Bay from 1984 to 2009, and four captive dolphins at a nearby aquarium.Some wild dolphins were briefly captured and held in separate nets by the research team, allowing them to hear but not see each other. Researchers found that dolphins familiar with each other would mimic the whistle of another in that group when they were separated. Most of this took place among mothers and calves, or among males who were close associates, suggesting it was affiliative and not aggressive— somewhat like calling out the name of a missing child or friend. Whistle copying of this sort was not found in dolphins that happened to cross paths in the wild.
This use of vocal copying is similar to its use in human language, where the maintenance of social bonds appears to be more important than the immediate defense of resources. This helps differentiate dolphins’ vocal learning from that of birds, which tend to address one another in a more “aggressive context.”
If confirmed, this would be a level of communication rarely found in nature. If dolphins can identify themselves and address friends with just a few squeaks, it’s easy to imagine what else they’re saying. However, as the authors of the study point out, all we can do right now is still imagine.
44. What is the main idea of the passage?
(A) Bottlenose dolphins show strong ties to their family members.
(B) Bottlenose dolphins recognize their friends’ voices in the wild.
(C) Bottlenose dolphins produce whistles that distinguish themselves.
(D) Bottlenose dolphins demonstrate a unique type of animal communication.
45. Which of the following statements is true about Wells’s research team?
(A) Their data were collected over two decades.
(B) They recorded the calls of dolphins and birds.
(C) Their major research base was in Mexico.
(D) They trained 250 wild dolphins for observation.
46. What does “this” in the third paragraph refer to?
(A) Recording messages. (B) Conducting research.
(C) Behavior learning. (D) Whistle copying.
47. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
(A) Birds may use their calls to claim territory.
(B) Male dolphins whistle when fighting for mates.
(C) Dolphins make harsh squeaks when hunting for food.
(D) Both dolphins and birds tend to mimic their enemies’ whistles.
很快看過題目後，我們知道考點包括：文章主旨 (44)、研究進行方式 (45)、粗體 this 的意思 (46)、推論 (47)
(A) 訊息錯誤。文章主要談論海豚發出的聲音，而非牠們之間的緊密關係（strong ties）。
(B) 片段訊息。辨識朋友聲音（recognize their friends’ voices）只是部分細節。
(C) 片段訊息。發出獨有哨音（produce whistles that distinguish themselves）只是部分細節。
(D) 正確答案。本文即是在介紹海豚發出獨有哨音、辨識及模仿其他海豚哨音的行為，並推論這可能是一種自然界罕見的溝通行為（unique type of animal communication）。
● 第一段點出「文章主題」：瓶鼻海豚（bottlenose dolphins）的叫聲（clicks, whistles, and whines）
● 第二段是「研究結果概述」：近年研究（A recent study）發現海豚能發出「招牌哨音」（produce their own unique “signature whistles"）並辨識及模仿其他海豚哨音（recognize and mimic whistles of other dolphins ）
● 第三段是「研究執行及成果細節」：前半部說「要執行這項研究...」(To conduct the study...) ，後半部說「研究者發現...」（Researchers found）
● 第四段是「哨聲模仿行為的比較」：比較哨聲模仿（vocal copying）跟人類語言（human language）及鳥類（bird）哨聲。
● 第五段是「結尾」：如經證實（If confirmed），這會是自然界罕見的溝通行為（communication rarely found in nature）。
45. 關於 Wells 研究團隊的以下敘述何者為真？
文中提到 researchers listened to recordings...from 1984 to 2009（研究者聆聽 1984 年到 2009 年的錄音檔），可知 (A) Their data were collected over two decades.（資料蒐集超過二十年）是正確答案。(B)、(C)、(D) 的敘述均未提及。
答題參考策略：運用「掃讀」技巧，直接搜尋關鍵人名 Wells（第二段最後）並從那邊開始看起，或運用「略讀」技巧，將答案範圍鎖定在第三段前半，從 To conduct the study…開始看起。
前一句提到 dolphins familiar with each other would mimic the whistle of another（彼此相熟的海豚會模仿對方的哨音），由此可知這裡的 this 指的就是 (D) Whistle copying（哨聲模仿）囉！
答題參考策略：可直接從 this 前 1-2 兩句開始看起，沒有找到答案再往更前面看。
(A) 正確答案。掃讀 bird，可在第四段得知鳥類 tend to address one another in a more “aggressive context.”（傾向傳達較侵略性的訊息），而 claim territory（宣示地盤）是一種侵略性行為，符合此項敘述。
(B) 錯誤推論。掃讀 male，可在第四段得知哨音模仿行為 took place among mothers and calves, or among males who were close associates（發生在關係緊密的公海豚之間），suggesting it was affiliative and not aggressive（暗示這是友好而非攻擊性行為）。可 fighting for mates（打鬥求偶）是攻擊性行為，與文中敘述不符。
(C) 錯誤推論。掃讀 squeaks，可在第五段看到海豚會 identify themselves and address friends with just a few squeaks（藉由幾聲尖鳴來表明身分或與朋友說話）；選項中的 hunting for food（獵捕食物）與此敘述不符。
(D) 錯誤推論。掃讀 mimic（模仿），可在第二段看到海豚模仿的是 whistles of other dolphins they are close to（與牠們關係緊密的其他海豚的哨聲）；選項中的 mimic their enemies’ whistles（模仿敵人哨音）與此敘述不符。