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紐時賞析/攻擊過後 美國緊盯極端分子標記

2019-10-09 16:12紐時賞析

美國的白人至上主義新納粹分子。 法新社
美國的白人至上主義新納粹分子。 法新社
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Scrutiny for Extremist Symbols After Attacks in U.S.

攻擊過後 美國緊盯極端分子標記

The bowl-shaped haircut worn by the white supremacist who killed nine black worshippers in Charleston, South Carolina, stands among the most disturbing and distinctive images that extremists have shared online. Others include letters drawn from the ancient runic alphabet — a particular favorite among neo-Nazis — or slogans like “Diversity=White genocide.”

在南卡羅來納州查爾斯頓殺害九名教徒的白人至上主義者,頭上頂著的那碗公髮型,是極端主義者在網路上分享的最令人不舒服且具識別性的圖象之一,其他圖象還包括取自古代盧恩字母的文字,這是新納粹的最愛,以及「多元=白人種族滅絕」之類口號。

They are among the many symbols, slogans and memes that white supremacists are deploying as propaganda and which are drawing more scrutiny amid a broader effort to curtail extremist violence in the United States.

這些都是白人至上主義者用以廣為宣傳的符號、口號和迷因的一部分,在美國加強打擊極端主義暴力之際,也都受到更多檢視。

The Anti-Defamation League is adding 36 entries to its long-standing online catalog of far-right symbols, many of which are built around racist stereotypes that have been spread about African Americans and Jews.

「反誹謗聯盟」在其建立已久的極右符號線上目錄中,新增了36個條目,其中許多是根據原本即加諸非裔美國人和猶太人的種族刻板印象打造的。

About 10 of them are the logos of extremist organizations. Several others are numeric codes that can carry hidden messages, like the numbers 109 or 110, anti-Semitic shorthand that claims that Jews have been expelled from 109 countries and that the United States should become the 110th.

其中約10個是極端組織的標誌,另有數個是可傳達隱藏訊息的數字碼,例如109和110是反猶太的簡碼,宣稱猶太人已被109個國家驅逐,美國應該成為第110國。

Hate symbols have long historical roots. As with most aspects of the internet age, however, these insignia now emerge at an accelerated pace and reach a far wider audience, according to experts.

仇恨符號源遠流長。然而,根據專家看法,一如網路時代的大多數面向,這些標誌如今加快浮現,且觸及較過去為廣的受眾。

The uptick in propaganda is part of the overall spread of far-right ideology and its more public face in recent years. Experts and nongovernmental organizations say that people should be more aware of symbols possibly floating in their midst, whether on the web or in real life on protest posters or T-shirts.

近年極右意識型態全面擴大散播且更公開面對大眾,宣傳的增加是此一大勢的一環。專家和非政府組織說,民眾應該更加注意可能在周遭流傳的符號,不論是在網路或現實世界,在抗議海報或T恤上。

The federal government, which has been criticized for playing down the threat from domestic white extremists, has seemed to alter its course in the wake of several recent mass shootings perpetrated by white extremists that have left dozens dead and many more wounded.

聯邦政府一直承受淡化本土白人極端分子威脅的批評,近來白人極端分子犯下數起大型槍擊案、造成數十人死亡及更多人受傷後,似已改變路線。

Kevin K. McAleenan, acting secretary of the Department of Homeland Security, said  that the attacks in El Paso, Texas, and Poway, California, as well as earlier ones in Pittsburgh and Charleston, among others, demonstrated that a growing number of actors seek to harm society and to incite more disaffected youth to violence.

美國國土安全部代理部長凱文.麥克利南說,德州艾爾帕索和加州波威攻擊案,較早的匹茲堡和查爾斯頓案,及其他案件皆顯示,試圖傷害社會並煽動更多不滿的年輕人訴諸暴力的行動者,人數不斷增加。

“White supremacist extremism is one of the most potent ideologies driving acts of targeted violence in this country,” he said in a keynote address.

他在一場主題演講中說:「白人至上極端主義,是這個國家驅動針對性暴力行為的最強大意識型態之一。」

American communities need better tools to understand such threats and to respond, McAleenan said, noting government statistics indicating that family members, friends or even bystanders had some inkling about a brewing attack in most cases.

麥克利南說,美國社會需要更好的工具,來了解這些威脅並作出反應,他提到政府統計數字顯示,大多數案件在攻擊行動的醞釀過程中,犯案者的家人、朋友甚至旁觀者,其實都曾察覺蛛絲馬跡。

One tool is recognizing symbols used by far-right groups.

其中一種工具,就是認識極右團體的符號。

文/Neil MacFarquhar 譯/莊蕙嘉

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