親愛的網友:
為確保您享有最佳的瀏覽體驗,建議您提升您的 IE 瀏覽器至最新版本,感謝您的配合。
大學考招
文教新訊
大學研究所
技職教育
中小學
國家考試
升大學甄選攻略
升學情報站
新知學習
觀點評論

《無罪的罪人》背後,先入為主的狼師想像

燦星旅遊撐不住 北市勞動局證實通報資遣18人

紐時賞析/民粹主義者今年的成績單

2019-01-02 09:00紐時賞析

A Report Card on the Populists

川普稱他給部隊加薪10%且是十多年來首次加薪,兩者皆不實。 美聯社
川普稱他給部隊加薪10%且是十多年來首次加薪,兩者皆不實。 美聯社
分享
This was the year populists made real efforts to challenge the economic consensus that has set the terms of the global economy for decades.

這一年,民粹主義者作出實際的嘗試,挑戰設定全球經濟關係數十年的經濟共識。

How are they doing?

他們做得如何?

It’s a mixed bag. President Donald Trump’s trade war achieved some gains but has yet to deliver the type of change many populists have called for, like a rollback of China’s interventionist industrial policies. Britain’s plan to leave the European Union has not made it through the country’s Parliament. But Italy’s populist government this week reached a fiscal deal with the European Union that appears to be a slight win for the country. And some of the populists’ economic ideas appear to be gaining ground.

有好有壞。美國總統川普的貿易戰有些成績,但尚未促成許多民粹主義者要求的那種改變,例如擊退中國的干預式產業政策。英國退出歐盟的計畫尚未獲國會通過。而義大利的民粹主義政府本月和歐盟達成一項財政協議,看似這個國家的小小勝利。此外,民粹主義者的部分經濟想法似乎也有所斬獲。

— Trump’s trade wars.

-川普的貿易戰

Populists have long contended that the global system of free trade hurt the livelihoods of many American workers. Trump’s trade war showed that it was not easy to force big changes in the arrangements that underpin the flow of trillions of dollars of trade.

民粹主義者長期主張,全球自由貿易系統傷害許多美國勞工的生計。川普的貿易戰顯示,要在支撐數以兆(美)元計的貿易往來協議上強加重大改變,並非易事。

The Trump administration began by imposing tariffs on countries to force them to agree to his demands. But that confrontational strategy did not press China or the European Union to surrender. Instead, the Trump administration struck truces with China and the EU and got mild concessions from other countries.

川普政府開始對一些國家課徵關稅,以迫使對方接受他的要求。但是那種對抗式的策略並未迫使中國或歐盟屈服。相反的,川普政府和中國及歐盟達成暫時停火,並從其他國家得到少許讓步。

On the battlefield of ideas, Trump’s trade war has helped increase skepticism about free trade. Congress did not mount much resistance to his trade policy.

在觀念的戰場中,川普的貿易戰助長了對自由貿易的懷疑,國會對他的貿易政策未作太多抵抗。

— Rome is not burning (yet).

-羅馬(還)沒著火

After taking office in June, Italy’s populists quickly let the European Union know that they would not stick to the previous government’s fiscal targets for next year. Italy’s new government said it expected its budget deficit to grow to 2.4 percent of gross domestic product in 2019. That number was too high for the EU, and the tension between Rome and Brussels caused a plunge in Italian government bonds and appeared to weigh on Italy’s economy. But this month Italy and the EU agreed on a deficit of 2.04 percent of gross domestic product for 2019. True, the figure is lower than the populists’ desired target, but it’s significantly larger than the deficit target (0.8 percent of GDP) Italy’s previous leaders agreed to.

義大利的民粹主義者今年6月上台後,很快就讓歐盟了解,他們不會遵守前朝政府的來年財政目標。義大利新政府說,預期2019年的預算赤字會增至國內生產毛額(GDP)的2.4%,這個數字對歐盟而言太高了,而羅馬和布魯塞爾關係緊張導致義大利公債價格大跌,也明顯影響義大利經濟。但是義大利和歐盟本月同意,將2019年預算赤字定在GDP的2.04%。沒錯,這個數字比民粹主義者想要的目標低,但是已比義大利前任領袖所同意的赤字目標(GDP的0.8%)高出了許多。

— Will “Brexit” fail?

-英國脫歐會失敗嗎?

Populism would face a big defeat if Britain ends up staying in the European Union after it voted to leave in 2016. Prime Minister Theresa May’s government forged a departure agreement with the bloc last month, but it appears to lack the votes to get approved by the British Parliament.

英國於2016年公投決定脫歐,若最終留在歐盟,民粹主義將面臨重大挫敗。首相梅伊政府上月和歐盟達成脫歐協議,但似乎無法取得獲英國國會批准的足夠票數。

Several possible paths lie ahead. Britain could leave the EU without a deal, an outcome some populists might favor. Perhaps more likely, Parliament, fearing an economic crash, would vote for May’s deal or a similar deal that ties Britain closer to the bloc. And the probability of a second referendum, in which voters may be asked if they still want to leave, continues to rise.

眼前有一些可能路線。英國可能無協議脫歐,這或許是一些民粹主義者樂見的結果。或許更有可能的,恐懼經濟崩潰的國會,會投票支持梅伊的協議或類似協議,讓英國與歐盟的關係更親近些。而第二次公投的可能性亦持續增高,屆時可能會問選民是否仍想脫歐。

說文解字看新聞

本文探討民粹主義在全球的發展,介紹三個主要議題:川普的貿易戰、義大利預算赤字及英國脫歐。

美國政府對以中國為主的多個國家實施高關稅(impose tariffs),impose帶有強制施加意味,tariff此處作關稅解,在一般商務中則為「收費表」,「價目表」之意。

英文寫作中為避免同一字詞一再出現,會用其他字詞代換以求變化,用國家首都或組織總部所在地作為代名詞就是常見的例子,例如以Rome(羅馬)指義大利政府,以Brussels(布魯塞爾)代表總部設於當地的歐盟及北約組織。

小標Rome is not burning是雙關語,指義大利可能因債務問題「失火」成國家危機,出處是公元64年的羅馬大火。這場大火詳情已不可考,據稱發生於7月18日,火勢延燒六天,摧毀了大部分的羅馬市區。

近兩年在英語新聞經常可看到Brexit一字,由Britain加上exit合成,這個用法在2012年即出現,希臘於2010年發生債務危機後揚言退出歐元區,花旗集團分析師首先提出Grexit(Greece+exit)一字。

文/Peter Eavis 譯/莊蕙嘉

紐約時報英語能力

紐時賞析

精選紐約時報精彩報導譯為中文並刊出原文,配合賞析導讀,讓讀者除了學英語也能深入了解全球文化。

商品推薦

贊助廣告

商品推薦

留言


Top