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新一代兒童週報/真實與謊言 測謊機說了算?

2018-11-01 12:16聯合新聞網 新一代兒童週報/雙語週報

圖片來源/ingimage
圖片來源/ingimage
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川普:給我揪出匿名投書者

On September 5th, an anonymously written opinion piece was published in the New York Times newspaper. The anonymous author claimed to be a senior official working in President Trump’s administration. Because the piece criticized Trump heavily, the US President wants Attorney General Jeff Sessions to find the author. Trump has even suggested using a polygraph to test any White House staff member who has a security clearance.

今年9月5日,美國《紐約時報》以匿名方式刊登一篇意見投書。投書的匿名作者宣稱是川普總統行政團隊裡的資深官員。由於這篇匿名投書對川普總統大肆抨擊,引來總統不悅,要求司法部長傑夫‧賽辛斯揪出作者是誰。總統甚至建議動用多頻道生理記錄儀,對已通過身家調查、擁有安全許可的白宮職員進行測謊

原理假設:身體反應比嘴巴老實

We often feel some amount of stress when we lie. This stress could make our hearts beat faster or make parts of our brains more active. That’s why devices like the polygraph, FMRI or EEG record activity in different parts of our bodies. These machines don’t actually tell if someone is lying however, only if a person feels some stress or nervousness about the questions being asked.

說謊時,通常我們會感到些許壓力。壓力會讓我們心跳加快,或使腦部某些區域更活躍。這是為何我們用測謊機、功能性磁振造影儀、腦波儀等儀器,記錄身體不同部位的活動。但其實這些儀器本身並不會告訴我們受測者是否說謊;只有當受測者對測謊問題感到壓力或緊張時,我們才知其是否說謊。

測謊儀器:記錄多重生理數據

The polygraph was invented in the USA in 1921. This machine records physiological information such as perspiration, heart rate and blood pressure. We use this info to determine whether or not a person is telling the truth. “Poly” comes from the Greek word polus, meaning much. “Graph” also comes from the Greek word graphos, meaning written. People commonly call the machine a “lie detector”.

美國在1921年發明了多頻道生理記錄儀Polygraph。操作時,這套儀器會記下受測者流汗、心跳、血壓等生理訊息。測試者便利用這些資料,判斷受測者是否據實以告。就多頻道生理記錄儀的英文名稱字意而言,字首poly 源於希臘文polus 意思是「多」。字尾graph 也是從希臘字源graphos 而來,意指「被寫」。polygraph 這種儀器,就是人們常說的「測謊機」。

破解有道:仍有辦法騙過測謊機

Before a polygraph starts, there is a long pretest interview. The examiner tells the subject many things, including how the equipment works and even all the questions that will be asked during the actual test. The whole thing lasts two to three hours and is always done in private. Still, some question the validity of these tests because experts have admitted they can be beaten with proper training.

用測謊機正式進行測謊之前,會有一段漫長的前測面談階段。測試者會告知受測者許多事,包括測謊機如何運作,甚至也告知實測時會問哪些問題。實際測謊階段耗時兩、三個小時,且通常關在小房間裡私下進行。即便測謊程序如此,測謊的效度仍常被質疑,因為就連測謊專家也承認,受測者只要經過適度訓練,仍能騙過測謊機。

立法限制:美國企業禁對員工測謊

There are rules for using polygraphs. Since 1988, it has been illegal in the US for employers to use polygraphs on their employees. This means an employer cannot use a polygraph to hire or fire a person. Employers can’t force anyone to take a polygraph test, nor can they do anything if a person refuses. However, the Employee Polygraph Protection Act applies only to private businesses in America.

測謊機不能無限上綱,必須遵守使用上的規定。自1988年起,美國政府禁止僱用者對受僱者測謊。也就是說,企業不能用測謊手段決定雇用或開除員工。不過,這個《受僱者測謊保護法》只適用於美國的私人企業。

公務採用:測或不測,不是鐵板一塊

People who work in the government or police agencies do not work for private companies. They work for the public. In fact, these institutions have been using polygraphs to screen would be police officers and other agents since the 1950s. Strangely enough, while President Trump wants to use a polygraph to find the anonymous author, he also wants to stop using polygraphs when hiring new US-Mexico border patrol agents.

美國政府或警局並不是私人企業,在這些機構工作的人都是公務員。事實上,這些公務機構自1950年代起,就開始用測謊機篩選警察或探員候選人。但說也奇怪,川普總統現在一方面想用測謊機揪出匿名投書者,但在甄選新任美墨邊界巡官時,卻主張跳過測謊程序。

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