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新一代兒童週報/墮胎爭議

2018-07-12 14:00聯合新聞網 文章提供/新一代兒童週報

圖片來源/ingimage
圖片來源/ingimage
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火線:愛爾蘭通過公投

Abortion used to be illegal in Ireland, unless it was necessary to save the woman’s life. So thousands of Irish women had to go to Brit¬ain for the procedure. All that changed on May 25th when there was a referendum about removing this ban on abortion in Ireland. The results of the vote were over¬whelming with 66.4% of the voters in favor of changing the law.

除非用於挽救懷孕女性的性命,否則墮胎在愛爾蘭向來是非法的。正因如此,已有數千名愛爾蘭婦女前往英國進行墮胎手術。然而,在5 月25 日這天,一切有了不同。愛爾蘭舉行公民投票,贊成墮胎的得票率達66.4%,通過墮胎公投。

方式:藥物×手術

Abortion is a kind of medical procedure in which a doctor ends an unwanted or unsafe pregnancy. There are two types of abortion: medi¬cal and surgical. The medical way uses a special kind of medicine, usually a pill. The surgical way involves minor surgery. Before the referendum, pregnant Irish women ei¬ther had to illegally buy abortion pills online or leave their country to have a surgical abortion.

墮胎(人工流產)屬醫療行為,醫生執行此行為, 中止非預期或不安全的懷孕。墮胎可分成藥物流產及手術流產兩種方式。服用特定藥物造成流產,即稱藥物流產。手術流產則須透過手術進行,屬於非重大手術。愛爾蘭5 月25 日公投前, 懷孕婦女如要墮胎,只能透過網路違法購買墮胎藥,或出國尋求手術流產。

效應:北愛爾蘭受到鼓舞

In the United Kingdom, the National Health Service already provides free abortions to most wom¬en. However, even though North Ireland is part of Great Britain, a woman may only get an abortion if the pregnancy threatens her life. So when the referendum passed in Ireland, North Irish became hopeful that a similar change might happen for them. Instead, the UK’s highest court rejected the idea.

英國衛生部允許大部分的英國懷孕婦女自由選擇墮胎。然而,即使北愛爾蘭是大不列顛及北愛爾蘭聯合王國的一部分,北愛婦女只有在懷孕危及母親生命安全時,才能進行人工流產。因此當愛爾蘭通過墮胎公投,北愛人民受到鼓舞,希望墮胎公投也能在北愛實施並且通過。不過,英國最高法院已經拒決這項訴求。

立法:各國開放程度不一

Laws about abortions are very different from one country to the next. The majority of nations (about 97 percent) allow abortions in order to save a woman’s life. About two-thirds of countries allow abortions to protect the physical or mental health of a woman. Roughly half say it’s okay if there was rape or incest involved, or if the fetus is damaged. Only one-third allow women to choose freely.

各國的墮胎法律相當分歧。絕大多數國家(約占97%),允許在保護孕婦生命前提下進行墮胎。約有3 分之2 的國家,同意為保護女性身心健康而做的墮胎。另有大約半數的國家,允許遭強暴或亂倫而懷孕,或肚中胎兒嚴重損傷的女性接受墮胎。全世界只有3 分之1 的國家,允許女性完全擁有選擇墮胎的自由。

辯論:胎兒是否也有生命權

Abortion is a very controversial issue because people have very different and very strong opinions about it. It all comes down to this question: is a fetus, or unborn child, a person? Those who believe it is a person think that abortion is a kind of murder. Others say the fetus isn’t a person yet and the pregnant woman has the right to decide what happens to her body.

墮胎具高度爭議,人們對墮胎的看法南轅北轍,各有主張。所有的爭議,可以歸結到下列這個問題:胎兒, 或曰未出生的孩子,是具有生命的個體嗎?針對這問題,信者主張墮胎與謀殺無異。反之,不信者認為,懷孕女性有權對胎兒做出處分。

對立:Pro-Life vs. Pro-Choice

The two sides of the abortion de¬bate are referred to as ‘pro-life’ and ‘pro-choice’. People who identify as pro-life feel that a fetus is a liv¬ing person as soon as it is made. Many pro-life support¬ers follow a religion that does not allow abortion. People who identify as pro-choice don’t think a fetus is a person yet, and feel a woman’s right to choose is the most impor¬tant thing.

反對跟支持墮胎的主張,各自屬於「支持生命權」及「支持選擇權」兩派。認同前者的民眾認為, 胎兒一旦成形,其生命權與世上任一人無異。認同後者的民眾則主張胎兒尚且非人, 懷孕女性的選擇權,才是最需要被保障的權利。

(本文轉載自【新一代兒童週報/雙語週報】044期)

愛爾蘭公投英語能力新一代兒童週報

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